اللغه الهنديه

May 16

اللغه الهنديه

Modern Hindi literature emerges: 1796: Earliest type-based Devanagari printing (John Gilchrist, Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language, Calcutta) [Dick Plukker] 1805: Lalloo Lal's Premsagar published for Fort William College, Calcutta [Daisy Rockwell] 1813-46: Maharaja Swati Tirunal Rama Varma(Travancore) composed verses in Hindi along with South Indian languages. 1826: "Udanta Martanda" Hindi weekly from Calcutta 1837: Phullori, author of "Om Jai Jagdish Hare" born 1839,1847: "History of Hindi Literature" by Garcin de Tassy in French [Daisy Rockwell] 1833-86: Gujarati Poet Narmad proposed Hindi as India's national language 1850: The term "Hindi" no longer used for what is now called "Urdu". 1854: "Samachar Sudhavarshan" Hindi daily from Calcutta 1873: Mahendra Bhattachary's "Padarth-vigyan" (Chemistry) in Hindi 1877: Novel "Bhagyavati" by Shraddharam Phullori 1886: "Bharatendu period" of modern Hindi literature starts 1893 Founding of the Nagari Pracharni Sabha in Benares [Daisy Rockwell] 1900: "Dvivedi period" starts. Nationalist writings 1900: "Indumati" story by Kishorilal Goswami in "Sarasvati" 1913: "Raja Harishchandra", first Hindi movie by Dadasaheb Phalke 1918-1938: "Chhayavad period" 1918: "Dakshin Bharat Hindi Prachara Sabha" founded by Gandhi. 1929: "History of Hindi Literature" by Ramchandra Shukla 1931: "Alam Ara" first Hindi talking movie 1930's: Hindi typewriters ("Nagari lekhan Yantra")[Shailendra Mehta] Our age 1949: Official Language Act makes the use of Hindi in Central Government Offices mandatory 1949-50: Hindi accepted as the "official language of the Union" in the constitution. Debates a, b, c. 1952: The Basic Principles Committee of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan recommends that Urdu be the state language. 1965: Opposition to "Hindi-imposition" in Tamilnadu brings DMK to power. 1975: English medium private schools start asserting themselves socially, politically, financially [Peter Hook]. 1985-6: Devanagari word processor, Devyani DTP software, both from Dataflow (?). 1987-88: Frans Velthuis creates Devanagari metafont. [Shailendra Mehta] 1990: According to World Almanac and Book of Facts Hindi-Urdu has passed English (and Spanish) to become the second most widely spoken language in the world [Peter Hook]. 1991: ITRANS encoding scheme developed by Avinash Chopde allows Hindi documents in Roman and Devanagari on the Internet. 1995: Movie "Hum Aapke Hain Kaun" biggest grosser ever 1997: Prime Minister Deve Gowda emphasises promotion of Hindi and the regional languages, having himself learned Hindi recently. 1997: Hindi Newspaper Nai Dunia on the web (January) (Or was Milap first?) 1998: Karunanithi, the DMK leader, recites a Hindi verse during a political campaign, indicating a change in views. 1998: Sonia Gandhi's Hindi lessons attract attention. 2001:

الخطوة الثانية: وهو (براهمان) وهو جوهر العالم الواحد الشامل الذي لا هو بذكر ولا هو بانثى، غير مشخص بصفاته، المحتوي لكل شيء - وهذه الكلم


اللغه الهنديه

"The Tuct Soliman of Cashmere in the time of Bernier, was described by him to be in ruins, and to have been a temple of the idolaters and not of the Mohamedans. The Mohamedans reported that it was built by Solomon, in very ancient times. All this at once does away with the pretence that it was a building of the modern Mohamedans; and is a strong confirmation of the Jewish nature of the other names of the towns - Yuda-poor, Iod-pore, etc., etc. Bernier goes on to say...that the name of Mousa or Moses is common among the natives, that Moses died at Cashmere, and that they yet show the ruins of his tomb near the town. This is curious when connected with the fact, that the Jews of Western Syria say, no one ever knew where he was buried." (Vol. I; p. 771.)



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مقالة عن اللغه الهنديه

Hindi is a direct descendant of Sanskrit through Prakrit and Apabhramsha. It has been influenced and enriched by Dravidian, Turkish, Farsi, Arabic, Portugese and English. It is a very expressive language. In poetry and songs, it can convey emotions using simple and gentle words. It can also be used for exact and rational reasoning.

More than 180 million people in India regard Hindi as their mother tongue. Another 300 million use it as second language. Outside of India, Hindi speakers are 100,000 in USA; 685,170 in Mauritius; 890,292 in South Africa; 232,760 in Yemen; 147,000 in Uganda; 5,000 in Singapore; 8 million in Nepal; 20,000 in New Zealand; 30,000 in Germany. Urdu, the official language of Pakistan, spoken by about 41 million in Pakistan and other countries, is essentially the same language. Dakhini is an older, southern form of Urdu that uses fewer Persian or Arabic words.

Hindi speaking regions: Himachal, Delhi, Haryana, Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajsthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Pakistan, Bombay, Hyderabad. Also used in Bangalore, Mauritius, Fiji, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad, United Arab Emirates.

Dialects of Hindi: Marwari, MAP Braj, map, Bundeli, map, Kanauji, map, Urdu, map, Chattisgarhi, map, Bagheli, map, Avadhi, map, Bhojpuri map, and many others. It is not easy to delimit the borders of the Hindi speaking region. There has been considerable controversy on the status of Punjabi and Maithili, map . Sometimes they are regarded to be independent languages and sometimes dialects of Hindi. A 1997 survey found that 66% of all Indians can speak Hindi, and 77% of the Indians regard Hindi as "one language across the nation".

Brief History of Hindi: Hindi started to emerge as Apabhramsha in the 7th cent. and by the 10 cent. became stable. Several dialects of Hindi have been used in literature. Braj was the popular literary dialect until it was replaced by khari boli in the 19th century.

Background: The period of Prakrits and Classical Sanskrit (dates are approximate): 750 BCE: Gradual emergence of post-vedic Sanskrit 500 BCE: Prakrit texts of Buddhists and Jains originate (Eastern India) 400 BCE: Panini composes his Sanskrit grammar (Western India), reflecting transition from Vedic to Paninian Sanskrit 322 BCE: Brahmi script inscriptions by Mauryas in Prakrit (Pali) 250 BCE: Classical Sanskrit emerges. [Vidhyanath Rao] 100 BCE-100 CE: Sanskrit gradually replaces Prakrit in inscriptions 320: The Gupta or Siddha-matrika script emerges. Apabhranshas and emergence of old Hindi: 400: Apabhransha in Kalidas's Vikramorvashiyam 550: Dharasena of Valabhi's inscription mentions Apabhramsha literature 779: Regional languages mentioned by Udyotan Suri in "Kuvalayamala" 769: Siddha Sarahpad composes Dohakosh, considered the first Hindi poet 800: Bulk of the Sanskrit literature after this time is commentaries. [Vidhyanath Rao] 933: Shravakachar of Devasena, considered the first Hindi book 1100: Modern Devanagari script emerges 1145-1229: Hemachadra writes on Apabhransha grammar Decline of Apabhransha and emergence of modern Hindi: 1283: Khusro's pahelis and mukaris. Uses term "Hindavi" 1398-1518: Kabir's works mark origin of "Nirguna-Bhaki" period 1370-: Love-story period originated by "Hansavali" of Asahat 1400-1479: Raighu: last of the great Apabhramsha poets 1450: "Saguna Bhakti" period starts with Ramananda 1580: Early Dakkhini work "Kalmitul-hakayat" of Burhanuddin Janam 1585: "Bhaktamal" of Nabhadas: an account of Hindi Bhakta-poets 1601: "Ardha-Kathanak" by Banarasidas, first autobiography in Hindi 1604: "Adi-Granth" a compilation of works of many poets by Guru Arjan Dev. 1532-1623: Tulsidas, author of "Ramacharita Manasa". 1623: "Gora-badal ki katha" of Jatmal, first book in Khari Boli dialect (now the standard dialect) 1643: "Reeti" poetry tradition commences according to Ramchandra Shukla 1645: Shahjehan builds Delhi fort, language in the locality starts to be termed Urdu. 1667-1707: Vali's compositions become popular, Urdu starts replacing Farsi among Delhi nobility. It is often called "Hindi" by Sauda, Meer etc. 1600-1825: Poets (Bihari to Padmakar) supported by rulers of Orchha and other domains.

Modern Hindi literature emerges: 1796: Earliest type-based Devanagari printing (John Gilchrist, Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language, Calcutta) [Dick Plukker] 1805: Lalloo Lal's Premsagar published for Fort William College, Calcutta [Daisy Rockwell] 1813-46: Maharaja Swati Tirunal Rama Varma(Travancore) composed verses in Hindi along with South Indian languages. 1826: "Udanta Martanda" Hindi weekly from Calcutta 1837: Phullori, author of "Om Jai Jagdish Hare" born 1839,1847: "History of Hindi Literature" by Garcin de Tassy in French [Daisy Rockwell] 1833-86: Gujarati Poet Narmad proposed Hindi as India's national language 1850: The term "Hindi" no longer used for what is now called "Urdu". 1854: "Samachar Sudhavarshan" Hindi daily from Calcutta 1873: Mahendra Bhattachary's "Padarth-vigyan" (Chemistry) in Hindi 1877: Novel "Bhagyavati" by Shraddharam Phullori 1886: "Bharatendu period" of modern Hindi literature starts 1893 Founding of the Nagari Pracharni Sabha in Benares [Daisy Rockwell] 1900: "Dvivedi period" starts. Nationalist writings 1900: "Indumati" story by Kishorilal Goswami in "Sarasvati" 1913: "Raja Harishchandra", first Hindi movie by Dadasaheb Phalke 1918-1938: "Chhayavad period" 1918: "Dakshin Bharat Hindi Prachara Sabha" founded by Gandhi. 1929: "History of Hindi Literature" by Ramchandra Shukla 1931: "Alam Ara" first Hindi talking movie 1930's: Hindi typewriters ("Nagari lekhan Yantra")[Shailendra Mehta] Our age 1949: Official Language Act makes the use of Hindi in Central Government Offices mandatory 1949-50: Hindi accepted as the "official language of the Union" in the constitution. Debates a, b, c. 1952: The Basic Principles Committee of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan recommends that Urdu be the state language. 1965: Opposition to "Hindi-imposition" in Tamilnadu brings DMK to power. 1975: English medium private schools start asserting themselves socially, politically, financially [Peter Hook]. 1985-6: Devanagari word processor, Devyani DTP software, both from Dataflow (?). 1987-88: Frans Velthuis creates Devanagari metafont. [Shailendra Mehta] 1990: According to World Almanac and Book of Facts Hindi-Urdu has passed English (and Spanish) to become the second most widely spoken language in the world [Peter Hook]. 1991: ITRANS encoding scheme developed by Avinash Chopde allows Hindi documents in Roman and Devanagari on the Internet. 1995: Movie "Hum Aapke Hain Kaun" biggest grosser ever 1997: Prime Minister Deve Gowda emphasises promotion of Hindi and the regional languages, having himself learned Hindi recently. 1997: Hindi Newspaper Nai Dunia on the web (January) (Or was Milap first?) 1998: Karunanithi, the DMK leader, recites a Hindi verse during a political campaign, indicating a change in views. 1998: Sonia Gandhi's Hindi lessons attract attention. 2001:

Source: https://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/hindiint.html


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